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They were to be made an example to others. The soldiers set up their camp in the ruined village. The soldiers used petroleum to set fire to the forests, burning one patch after another, and killing those who attempted to escape from the flames. Many of the women were taken to a church and raped. According to confidential British reports, Celaleddin Bey wrote a report documenting the violence and suggesting that as many as ten thousand inhabitants had lost their lives.


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Nearly all of the non-Ottoman documentation about Sasun presents a different story. These accounts are similar in broad strokes, yet possess distinct variations, which suggest multiple viewpoints. Subsequently, many modern accounts of Sasun can also be traced back to this pivotal report. For example, in the original report it was noted that Hampartsoum Boyadjian had gone to Genoa, instead of Geneva.

The palace employed a number of different censorship strategies to prevent the dissemination of any narrative it deemed illegitimate. Basing his investigation on interviews with survivors and soldiers, Knapp shared information with Hallward when the vice-consul came to stay with the Coles and the Knapps in Bitlis in October. It brought to bear years of experience in the region, immersion in local knowledge networks, fluent knowledge of both Turkish and Armenian, and extensive research. However, by mid-November the news of the Sasun massacres was published in the London Times and the Standard.

Royal M. Cole to another missionary, a letter that was itself based on accounts collected by the missionary-information network from both survivors and soldiers.

Beaman likely had maintained his connections with the British Embassy in Istanbul as the account contained details that only someone closely connected to the consular network would know. Dozens of special correspondents left London to report on the massacres, but only a few were able to make it through to Erzurum and to the Russian-controlled Caucasus.

Their interviews with survivors and soldiers were widely reproduced in other newspapers, and thus brought narratives of the Sasun massacres to a growing reading public around the world. The more that stories of the massacre appeared in newspapers abroad, the more the Ottoman state clamped down in order to maintain a particular public image. The dramatic escalation of news about Sasun had unintended consequences for the Armenian peasantries of the Ottoman East. After news of the massacres reached Europe, the Ottoman government clamped down on all networks of information. The Ottoman state also strove to prevent Armenian laborers from leaving their villages in the east by setting up an internal passport regime.

The attempts of the state to monopolize legitimate violence was now paralleled with efforts to monopolize movement and narrative. Despite these draconian tactics, news of the Sasun massacres spread far and wide. News of the massacres radicalized Ottoman Armenians abroad. Within the Ottoman Empire, news of Sasun convinced many Armenian communities that it was necessary to arm themselves in case the state visited violence upon them.

In Zeytun, another mountain community that had remained semi-autonomous, plans were made to resist through force of arms. And in Istanbul, a year after the massacres, thousands convened to protest against the plight of Armenian communities throughout the Ottoman East. These protests were violently suppressed. Over the course of the next year, as the cycle of news-suppression-protest continued, state violence would spread like a contagion across the Ottoman Empire, leaving tens of thousands dead in the process.

Artinian, Naimark eds. Tauris, , p. Chalabian, Cole, Royal M. Foreign Office, Turkey No. Gabriel M. Scott Co. Hurewitz J.

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Daily Total Snow for February - Climate - Environment and Climate Change Canada

Miller Owen. Nersisian Mkrtich Gegamovich, Genocid Armjan v. Appleton and Company, James Mandalian, Boston: Hairenik, Unwin, Government Printing Office, Wasti S.

Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah - तारक मेहता - Episode 1894 - 17th March, 2016

Gerth and C. Yarman Arsen, Palu-Harput , vol. Bliss, , p. Sasuni, , p.

Daily Total Snow for February 1893

Chalabian, , p. Uras, , p. Walker, , p. Quataert, , p. McCarthy et al. Walker , p. Miller, , p. Suny, , p. Dadrian, , p. Verheij, , p. Polatel, , p. Cole, The Missionary Herald , September , p. Rafter, , p. Sheil, , p. Southgate, , p. Ainsworth, , p. Millingen, , p.

General Conference Bulletin

Jwaideh, , p. Brant, , p. Bayraktar, , p. Weber, , p. Clay, , p. Barsumian, Artinian, ; M.

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Ueno, , p. Hurewitz, , p. Astourian, , p. Etmekjian, , p. Miller, a, p. Pteyan et al. Yarman, ; A. Dillon], The Contemporary Review , vol. Hodgetts, , p. Knapp], Hartford Seminary Record , , p. Gabriel, , p.

1893 in science

Chalabian , p. Sasuni , p. Hodgetts , p. Selvi, , p.

Digitized Florida Newspapers (1821-2004)

Verheij, , fn. Lynch , p. Nersisian, , p. Greene, , p. Graves, , p. Wasti, , p. Cole, , p. Sonyel, , p. Souvenir advertisements make up the bulk of the collection and will provide the researcher not only with interesting examples of late 19th century advertising, but also with insight into the goods and services offered by the businessmen and merchants of the late s.


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Although the journal is not signed or identified in any way, it appears to be written by a young boy. The ephemera collection also includes approximately 41 oversize items. Oversize materials include blueprints and floor plans, illustrations, maps, and newspapers. Skip to main navigation Skip to main navigation Skip to search Skip to search Skip to content. Use current location. See all locations. Admin Admin Admin, collapsed.