World War II
Houser and Bayard Rustin. Journey of Reconciliation. Typescript, Among the recommendations were an antilynching law, the abolition of the poll tax, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Committee FEPC , the desegregation of the military, and laws to enforce fair housing, education, health care, and employment. Washington, D. For more than twenty years the NAACP initiated lawsuits to nullify restrictive covenants with little success.
In , J. Shelley, a black man, purchased a home in St.
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Louis covered by a restrictive covenant. Louis Kraemer, a white neighbor, obtained an injunction in the Missouri Supreme Court to bar occupancy. Kraemer along with similar cases from Detroit and Washington, D. Supreme Court. On May 3, , the court affirmed in Shelley v. George L. Vaughn to Thurgood Marshall concerning Shelley v. Kraemer , January 13, Shelley v. He joined Joseph Rauh in drafting a civil rights plank for the party platform.
In November Truman carried seventy-seven percent of the black vote, helping him to win reelection. Democratic Platform, On July 26, , President Harry Truman issued two executive orders.
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Executive Order instituted fair employment practices in the civilian agencies of the federal government. Executive Order , July 26, Typed document.
fisblazio.org/img/uomo/bakekaincontri-rocca-di-neto.php Korean War veteran Samuel Tucker b. Korean War veteran Bill Saunders b. Joseph L. Rauh — , the son of a factory owner, grew up in Cincinnati.
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From to , he clerked for Supreme Court Justices Benjamin Cardozo and Felix Frankfurter, his former professor, and also worked as counsel to several New Deal agencies. By the mids, he was a leading civil rights attorney and political advisor. He was a delegate to all the Democratic National Conventions from to , and remained active in politics until his death. Rauh, Jr. Photograph, between and The Civil Rights Map of America. Printed map.
New York: Oceana Publications, Geography and Map Division , Library of Congress For three days January 15—17, , more than 4, delegates representing the NAACP, labor, religious, and civil liberties groups descended on Congress to urge passage of the bills. They also agreed to form a Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, a coalition to lobby for civil rights laws and monitor their compliance.
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Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress The Fair Employment Practices Committee The Fair Employment Practices Committee FEPC was authorized to investigate complaints of job discrimination based on race, color, creed, or national origin in defense industries receiving government contracts and to require antidiscrimination clauses in defense contracts. Morgan v. Virginia , On July 16, , Irene Morgan refused to surrender her seat to white passengers and move to the back of a Greyhound bus while traveling from Gloucester County, Virginia, to Baltimore, Maryland.
Kraemer , For more than twenty years the NAACP initiated lawsuits to nullify restrictive covenants with little success.
Return of World War II Artifacts
Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress Connect with the Library All ways to connect. Experiments with transplants, bacteria, gases and other chemical agents were carried out on thousands of hapless prisoners. As part of trying to find out how Germany, one of the most scientifically sophisticated and humanistic cultures had become so perverted, a military tribunal was established as a corollary to the 13 Nuremberg trials. And between December and August , 23 medical doctors were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The defence mounted by the doctors was founded on three points: first was the classic Nuremberg defence of only obeying orders in a time of national emergency. The second was that war was a time of national emergency where sacrifices had to be made for the greater good of the population, particularly troops. But the most interesting was the final defence, which claimed what the Nazi doctors had done was little different from experiments carried out by the allies on their own prison populations, inmates of mental asylums, conscientious objectors and troops.
This final point was undeniable: in both the United States and Britain, experiments had been carried out on vulnerable groups. In , for instance, patients at a Michigan state mental hospital were deliberately infected with the influenza virus. And in the early s, predominantly African-American prisoners at the Statesville Penitentiary were deliberately infected with malaria.
These are only two of the many experiments carried out on vulnerable populations; people who could not be said to have the freedom to consent.
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It was apparent a general code of ethics developing standards for informed consent in human research needed to come out of the trial so the judges formulated the Nuremberg Code as part of their judgement. They used the work of Andrew Ivy , the American Medical Association representative, and psychiatrist and neurologist Leo Alexander who was appointed to the prosecution team, both of whom had supplied the trial with their own ethical codes. The existence of the code was not enough to halt the Tuskegee syphilis study in which African-American men with syphilis were simply observed though treatment was available.
When the war began, quickie marriages became the norm, as teenagers married their sweethearts before their men went overseas.
As the men fought abroad, women on the Home Front worked in defense plants and volunteered for war-related organizations, in addition to managing their households. General Eisenhower felt that he could not win the war without the aid of the women in uniform. They also drove trucks, repaired airplanes, worked as laboratory technicians, rigged parachutes, served as radio operators, analyzed photographs, flew military aircraft across the country, test-flew newly repaired planes, and even trained anti-aircraft artillery gunners by acting as flying targets.
Some women served near the front lines in the Army Nurse Corps, where 16 were killed as a result of direct enemy fire.